The Butler Scholarly Journal


  1. The Rendition Dystopia

    ‘Power is not a means; it is an end.’ – George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty Four. The date 11 September 2001 is undoubtedly identified among the global population as one of the most significant dates in modern history. The acts of terror committed in the United States on that day continue to resonate with countless others across […]

  2. Beyond the Olympic Spectacle: Displacement for Development

    As the first South American host, the 2016 Olympics in Rio are eagerly anticipated as an opportunity to attract tourists and business, as well as providing employment and training to assist the city’s economic growth. However, beyond the spectacle and perceived benefits of the event lies a darker interpretation, which implies that the Olympic games […]

  3. Olympic Legacies: Culture vs. Sport

    The notion of an ‘Olympic Legacy’ is often invoked to reiterate the longevity and importance of the global sporting event. The prestige of the games and celebrity of the athletes lodge in the imagination of the audience, promising a summer of sporting celebration that will aim to inspire a new generation of athletes and encourage […]

  4. Sport: A Tool of Colonial Control for the British Empire

    Sport, as we know it, found its roots in the British Empire. Many of today’s most popular sports including cricket, football and tennis, were organised and codified by the British in the nineteenth century.[1] However, assessing the motivations behind this vast programme of sporting dissemination still remains relatively under-explored. This is puzzling considering that the […]

  5. The Olympic Games: A Matter of Commercialisation and (Over) Conformity?

    With the Rio 2016 Olympic Games now just a few months away, it is time to ask the critical questions of who will benefit from the Games, and crucially, whether we can trust the athletes who compete. Sport has never been more popular. As a result, there has never been such a desire among multi-million […]

  6. Fractured Society: France and Islam

    France is still reeling from the horrendous attacks on its capital which left 130 dead. It asks itself: why us? While Islamist terrorism is a much worse scourge in countries across Africa, the Middle East and Asia, in our Western bubble it is France that has suffered most: from Mohammed Merah’s murderous rampage in Toulouse […]

  7. The use of portraits as political tools in the courts of early modern Europe

    The infamous painting of Henry VIII by Hans Holbein is one of the best-known images in English history. Instantly recognisable in the modern era, the portrait successfully exemplifies the authority and power of the Tudor king. It still springs to mind at the mention of his name, five hundred years on from the painting’s completion. […]

  8. Butler Talk: Broadcasting the News, Reflecting our Communities

    As part of the college’s Butler Talks, ITV correspondent Helen Ford visited the college in early November. ITV regularly holds their diversity panel, run by Helen, which is made up of members of the public and Josephine Butler students. Thus, the topic of representing diversity in television formed the majority of the talk. After a […]

  9. An Examination of the Anti-Vaccination Movement

    Between June 2007 and February 2015, it is estimated that there were 8,973 deaths in the United States that could have been prevented through vaccination. (1) Since the advent of vaccines by Jenner and Pasteur, there has been opposition towards them, with a multitude of social and political reasons contributing to this. (2) However, the […]

  10. Exploring the Risks of an Inactive Lifestyle for Children

    Physical Activity – ‘Any bodily movement produced by the skeletal muscles that results in an increase in metabolic rate over resting energy expenditure’. (1) Clearly a controversial term to define, yet a consensus appears to have been reached between many academics and clinicians as to what the term ‘physical activity’ should represent. That said, we […]